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The Shirvanshahs’ Palace Complex

İçərişəhərin Qərb qapısından daxil olan kimi Şirvanşahlar Sarayı minarə və günbəzlərinin əzəmətli ilə diqqətinizi çəkəcəkdir. Şirvan hökmdarlarının iqamətgahı olan  Şirvanşahlar Sarayı, qədim şəhərdə dominant rol oynayır.

VI əsrdən XVI əsrə qədər mövcud olmuş Şirvanşahlar dövləti hökmdarlarının ağıllı və düzgün siyasəti nəticəsində min il yaşaya bilmiş, yalnız Şirvanın deyil, bütün Azərbaycanın mədəni, ictimai-iqtisadi, siyasi cəhətdən inkişafında əvəzsiz rol oynamışdır. 1191-ci ilədək Şamaxı şəhərində yerləşən paytaxt güclü zəlzələ nəticəsində dağıldıqdan sonra Şirvan dövlətinin iqamətgahı Bakı şəhərinə köçürülmüş və Saray binasının inşasına başlanılmışdır.

Divan-Khana

The magnificent and luxurious Divan-Khana was built from eight-pointed rotundas on a high throne, surrounded by arched balconies from five sides. The entrance portal of the Divan-Khana is rich in complex ornamental patterns engraved on the stone, and decorations similar to the delicate weaving are laid and the leaves from Azerbaijani flora are depicted on the right and left sides of the entrance.

The verses of Islam are engraved in ancient Kufic writing on the 6-point trays placed on the portal frame from both sides. On the left tray, the words » There is no god but Allah, Mohammad (saw) is the messenger of Allah, Ali (a.s) is the wali of Allah,» and on the right tray, the words «Allah is the only One” “Muhammad» are written.

Murad darvazası

Kompleksin şərq tərəfində, orta həyətdə XVI əsrə aid yeganə tikili olan Murad darvazası yerləşir. Ancaq portaldan ibarət olan tikilinin fasad tərəfinə həkk edilmiş kitabədə deyilir: “Bu nəcib binanı tikməyi ədalətli və əzəmətli Sultan Muradxanın vaxtında 994-cü ildə Ulu Rəcəb-baba-Bakuvi əmr etmişdir”.

Eyni daş növü ilə tikilmiş, eyni cür bəzədilmiş  stalaktit kəmərli yarımdairə formalı Portal ansamblın digər portallarına çox oxşayır. Lakin giriş oyuğunun ölçü və forması, kitabələrin yerləşdirilmə xüsusiyyətləri və hissələr arasındakı mütənasiblik onu başqa portallardan fərqləndirir.

Ovdan (reservoir)

There is a deep underground water reservoir-ovdan built in close proximity to the palace territory for the collection of underground springs along the walls of the complex from the north to the west. Water came into the ovdan through a well-kept underground water pipe-kyhryza and then was supplied to the Shah bathhouse.

The palace’s ovdan was considered one of the largest reservoirs in Absheron with the best drinking water. It was possible to descend into the reservoir having relatively small portal by a gentle staircase. Like other ovdans of Azerbaijan, in palace’s ovdan for reason of sustainability the focus was directed to the stone works rather than decorations.

“Shah” bath

The bathhouse, stayed underground for a long time, was discovered during excavations in 1936. Like all Eastern countries, the bathhouse was built under the ground for regulation of the heat in winter and of the coolness in the summer.

The light fell inside the bathhouse from the outside through cracks, only the entrance portal and dome of the bathhouse were visible from outside. The architectural structure of this constuction draws attention. The connection between the changing and washing rooms was highly thought-proven. Bathhouse heating system is also very interesting.

Shah Mosque

A mosque with high minaret is located on the south of the Shah’s family tomb. There is a small balcony at the top of the minaret, where the muezzin went up several times a day and called the devout for prayer. The XV century palace mosque has three gates. The main door on the north side differs for its portal. The portal of the middle courtyard door is more simplified; however, the door on the west has no portal. The mosque’s decor is very simple; in the smooth wall, there are small windows of stone decorative patterns and niches to put a lamp.

Mausoleum of Seyyid Yahya Bakuvi

8-pointed tomb of Seyid Yahya Bakuvi, a palace poet and scientist lived in time of Shirvanshah Khalilullah I, is located in the 2nd courtyard. At that time, Seyid Yahya Bakuvi had gained a reputation as a philosopher, teacher, astrologist and historian. The building known as «Dervish’s Tomb» was built in the XV century.

The ruins of the Key-Gubad Mosque-Madrassa, belonging to the XIV century adjacent to Bakuvi’s tomb, have survived to this day.

Shirvanshah’s Palace Mausoleum

The XIV century Shirvanshahs’ Tomb is located in the prayer yard. The mausoleum consists of a quadrilateral building with a stone dome cover stuck in a geometric pattern. The tomb’s portal is very rich. The name of Ali is repeated 24 times in the twelve-pointed medallion on arch of the entrance cavity. The verse from the Quran praising Allah is given at the top of the portal. Shirvanshah Khalilullah I ordered to build this sacred tomb for his mother and son.

Apartment building

The apartment building consists of 52 rooms. 27 of them are located on the bottom (ground floor) and 25 — on the upper floor (first floor). The only decoration of the simple, high and magnificent portal is the color shades created by the reflection of light and deep wall cavities. At present, the building of the palace acts as the museum exhibition.

The apartment building was built in the 12th century.

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